Governance is a complex process of interaction among the actors in an organized society. It can occur in a variety of formal or informal organizations, including the state, businesses, nonprofits, nongovernmental organizations, and other non-state institutions. The process involves decisions made by the government and other parties to a collective problem. This process enables the reproduction and development of social institutions, as well as the reinforcement of norms.
Political science focuses on theory and practice of politics and national governments. It also addresses issues related to social behavior, conflict, and freedom. In addition, it offers insight into international politics and the nature of power. Moreover, it seeks to understand the relationships between the state and the civil society. For this reason, it is important to examine how various political groups operate.
Politics and Governance is a global peer-reviewed open access journal that publishes significant research in the field. It publishes research from all areas of political science. These include topics such as the nature of governance, social and economic behaviour, and the role of political parties. Its editors encourage scholarly writing and the publication of research-led monographs. Several higher education institutions offer courses on governance. Some of them are the London School of Economics and Sciences Po Paris.
Contemporary practice questions the traditional separation of politics and administration. External actors are involved in the governing process, such as non-government organizations, media, and lobbies. Self-assessment is also used, led by the government or civil society. Several countries have developed ways to measure the quality of their governance. A recent example is the Worldwide Governance Index (WGI).
One of the main objectives of this project is to develop and disseminate indicators for the six dimensions of governance. These include governance effectiveness, human development, and capacity for reform. Various categories are included in the WGI, including composite indexes, individual indicators, and policy research working papers.
A key aspect of effective governance is the quality of public services. Good governance is often defined as having an efficient and transparent public sector, as well as the credibility of government commitment to policies. Other aspects include equity, political pluralism, and full respect for human rights. There is no internationally agreed definition of good governance, but it may be a general term that includes the rule of law, accountability, and transparency.
Government effectiveness is the degree to which a government is sovereign in its own national territory. It is also the ability of the government to respond to external pressures, such as military alliances, and to provide the public goods that are required. Moreover, it can be defined as the quality of the policy formulation and implementation process.
Measuring governance is a controversial exercise. However, it is a useful tool for analyzing how a country performs. A number of country-based assessments have been made, such as the Indonesian Democracy Index, the Gross National Happiness Index in Bhutan, and the Millennium Development Goal 9 monitoring in Mongolia. Others are based on surveys, such as the African Peer Review Mechanism.